There are two types of vitamins: water soluble and fat soluble. . Folate: All women who could become pregnant, are pregnant, or breastfeeding should take a. Vitamins. * The Daily Values are the amounts of nutrients recommended per day for Americans 4 years of age or older. VITAMIN. WHAT IT DOES. WHERE IS IT. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements .. vitamin and mineral requirements—19 micronutrients in all— including their role in xiii WHO_TRS__(chp7–chp13).pdf, accessed 26 June ). 7.
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Each of the vitamins and minerals known today has specific functions in the .. is very rare and symptoms involve a general failure of all the body's systems. Vitamins are organic compounds and minerals are chemical elements that are “vitamine” since not all of them are proven to be amines. Yet the scientific evidence is clear: all sub- stances, even vitamins, are toxic in sufficient excess-and legitimate medi- cal uses of large amounts (megadoses) are.
Scientific evidence supporting the benefits of some dietary supplements is well established for certain health conditions, but others need further study.
The best way to get enough vitamins is to eat a balanced diet with a variety of foods. In some cases, you may need to take a daily multivitamin for optimal health.
However, high doses of some vitamins can make you sick. Interesting Facts on Vitamins Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. There are 13 vitamins your body needs.
Vitamins are essential for the normal growth and development of a multicellular organism. Dietary supplements often contain vitamins, but may also include other ingredients, such as minerals, herbs, and botanicals.
In those who are otherwise healthy, there is no evidence that supplements have any benefits with respect to cancer or heart disease. In , the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy. The Recommended Dietary Allowances RDAs for vitamins reflect how much of each vitamin most people should get each day.
Humans must consume vitamins periodically but with differing schedules, to avoid deficiency. Each vitamin has specific jobs. Infants and children are far more sensitive to high intakes of the vitamin than are adults. The symptoms persisted for four days after discontinuation of vitamin A.
Intracranial pressure remained high for about 37 days after cessation of supplements and elevation of the plasma retinol binding protein level was even more prolonged 2C. The administration of unregulated food supplements may result in hypervitaminoses, which can be elicited only by taking complete dietary histories. This applies especially to vitamin A.
In one of the patients the daily intake of vitamin A had exceeded 30, IU 3c. Edema, protein malnutrition and abnormal liver function were seen in a patient who had ingested 40,, IU of vitamin A per day for seven years. Despite the high doses no other symptoms of vitamin A toxicity headache, hair loss, dry skin or painful extremities were seen.
Vitamins A case of acute hypervitaminosis A complicating virus hepatitis demonstrates that acute hypervitaminosis A can develop in the absence o f recent massive exposure to the vitamin.
Symptoms included headache, confusion, skin desquamation and hypercalcemia. Prior to developing hepatitis the patient had ingested supplemental vitamin A without recognizing any ill effect.
Liver and serum vitamin A levels were both elevated. This case demonstrates that patients with excessive hepatic stores of vitamin A may develop hypervitaminosis A during acute intercurrent liver disease 5 c. Development of hepatic cirrhosis probably occurs on account of accumulation of vitamin A in the liver, which causes liver damage 7e.
Increased blood trigl'yceride levels have been reported in rats given cis-retinoic acid as well as in patients receiving high doses of vitamin A.
Increased blood triglyceride concentration increased about two-fold 6 c. Serum lipids increased only slightly. For female patients the authors recommend reliable contraception, as teratogenicity cannot be excluded with this drug 8 c. Clinical skin fragility occurred in eight of ten patients and experimental friction blisters could be induced by pencil eraser abrasion in all patients. Light and electron microscopy showed fraying or loss of the stratum comeum and outer layers of the viable Vitamins epidermis, loss of desmosomes and tonofilaments and intracellular and intercellular deposits of amorphous material that did not stain for mucin.
The skin fragility produced by oral synthetic retinoids is epidermal in origin, since retinoids induce profound disruption of epidermal morphological appearance; an intradermal split is produced by experimental friction blisters, and urinary hydroxyproline excretion in patients receiving retinoids was found to be increased 9c.
Ro Only few side effects nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn were seen in 50 patients with polymorphous light eruptions, treated with daily doses of mg Ro 10c. Increased sweating, severe or total alopecia and retinoid dermatitis are less frequently reported symptoms 11 R, 12 c , 13c.
Parenteral therapy had to be discontinued and she was placed on oral cyanocobalamin. No further adverse reactions occurred 15 C. In the three patients who experienced flushing, reduction of the dose from 3 0 0 - 6 0 0 mg to about half led to a sufficient lessening or disappearance of symptoms so that niacinamid could be continued 16 C.
To quote a letter from HaUiwell 14 r : Mixtures of inorganic iron salts and ascorbic acid induce the peroxidation of cell membrane lipids to produce toxic products and also the formation of hydroxyl radicals from hydrogen peroxide. Hydroxyl radicals are extremely reactive and can attack and degrade most biological molecules - for example, they can attack the hyaluronic acid component of synovial fluid and cause loss of its lubricating ability.
Attention has been drawn to the presence of free iron salts, lowered ascorbate concentrations, and increased joint deposition of iron in rheumatoid arthritis in relation to pathology of this disease. Fortunately, lipid peroxidation and formation of hydroxyl radicals induced by mixtures of iron salts and ascorbate are inhibited by the iron chelator, desferrioxamine in vitro.
It is probably therefore safe to give vitamin C to patients with iron overload only if desferrioxamine is administered simultaneously. This fact is confirmed by some recently published reports 17 R, 18 r, 19R. All three patients developed severe symptomatic hypercalcemia within two months; one of the patients sustained persistent renal damage. Hypercalcemia occurred in all of eight patients with renal osteodystrophy due to end-stage renal failure.
The patients had initially received 1. The dose was subsequently H.